Antidepressants in Pregnancy Tied to Autism Risk

Dec 16, 2015 | | Say something

Antidepressants in Pregnancy Tied to Autism Risk ;

Dr. Sarah A LoBisco, ND
@DrLoBisco

originally published in NDNR.com

Study

A recent Canadian study sought to examine whether there was an associate for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children whose mothers used antidepressants during pregnancy risk. 03.01 The researchers identified only 145.456 term deliveries a population-based cohort ongoing took place from 1998 to 2009, Québec pregnancy / child cohort. the antidepressant exposure was defined by quarter and class of antidepressants. 1 Assessment of drug use was based on mothers who had at least one prescription filled during their second or third trimester, a time of critical brain development. 3 one thousand fifty-four children were identified with ASD based on at least 1 diagnosis between your birth date and the last follow-up. Boys outnumbered girls in the diagnosis of 4 :. 1 1

According to Health Day

There were 4,724 infants exposed to antidepressants, while her mother was pregnant; about 89 percent were exposed during the first quarter and 54 percent during the second or third trimester.

The researchers found that the use of antidepressants in the second or third trimester appeared to increase the risk of autism by 87 percent. previous use of antidepressants do not seem to have an effect.

SSRI use, in particular, more than twice the risk of autism in a child, the study authors said. 2

The study concluded: “The use of antidepressants, selective reuptake inhibitors specifically selective serotonin during the second and / or third trimester increases the risk of TEA in children, even after accounting for maternal depression. ” 1

This is not the first study to examine the relationship between autism with the use of antidepressants in mothers-to-be. 05.06 Could it be that the increased use of antidepressants in mothers is affecting autism rates? 3.4 Perhaps, but it is likely that one of the many factors.

many epigenetic considerations of autism

Autism is a multifactorial disease and epigenetic influences during pregnancy can have profound effects on cognition and brain development. Antidepressants are one such epigenetic influence. Several studies have examined this impact. 7-11

In a study in 2012 stated:

Until now, most studies investigated the genes within the hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal axis (HPA ) or neurotrophin system. Also of interest is that current psychopharmacological drugs including antidepressants, antipsychotics and mood stabilizers may exert some of their effects by inducing epigenetic changes is. In particular epigenetic alterations are potentially reversible and accessible drug treatment, leading to the development of new classes of antidepressant drugs. 8

antidepressants In 2014, an effect on DNA methylation was found:

Amitriptyline and imipramine tricyclic antidepressants, but also the SSRI paroxetine was shown to reduce the promoter DNA methylation in rat primary astrocytes, possibly by reducing DNA methyltransferase 1 activity.57,58 The mood stabilizer and the anticonvulsant valproate can induce an overall reduction in the levels of DNA methylation observed in human embryonic kidney cells and rat liver cells.59,60 Furthermore, the antipsychotic sulpiride and clozapine could activate demethyiation DNA in the frontal cortex and striatum. 9

Moreover, a 2008 study reported:

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modifications of chromatin in specific promoters BDNF determine the differential expression of variants BDNF splice discrete. Such modifications have been observed in Alzheimer’s disease 128 and can also be caused by particular antidepressant drugs73.1-

However, it is important to remember other factors mother and baby environment can alter risk of autism and could be synergistic with the modifications of antidepressants. For example, it was found that environmental stress can affect DNA methylation of CpG rich promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene ( SLC6A4) a nurse cohort. 11

..

Another epigenetic modulator is diet 13 Certain nutrients are important for brain development and antidepressants reduce their availability 14 a study examining the role of “brain foods” reported:

These studies represent a starting point for understanding how intracellular signaling triggered by factors of lifestyle can promote lasting changes in the function of DNA in the brain and cognitive ability. regulator information silent 2 (SIRT2), a member of the sirtuin protein family, has become an important modulator of genomic stability and cellular homeostasis that appears to act silencing function of specific genes. A diet that is high in saturated fats reduces the expression of SIRT2 in the rat hippocampus 90 , whereas a diet that is high in omega-3 has the opposite effect2.13

Therefore, a mother who is depressed with a poor diet and taking antidepressants may have three strikes against her baby epigenetic modification of his / her brain development. This could modulate the risk of health problems in children.

The root cause of depression

Moreover, antidepressants can not address the root cause of depression, so that epigenetic changes a factor in the top of the underlying problems. 14-19 For example, the theory of depression cytokine binds uncontrolled oxidative stress or depression inflammation. 15 Immunotoxicity 15 genetic variations 16 alterations in the gut microbiome and 18-19 exposure to pesticides 19-20 changes in hormonal responses (which neurotransmitters impact) 21 and mitochondrial dysfunction 24 are also considerations to address brain and cognitive health the mother and baby. Taking into account these factors, epigenetic factors on top of them can increase the risk of autism even more.

In summary may be a link with antidepressants and autism risk due to the effect of medication on this interaction epigenetics and many other factors.

Interestingly, I just read another study linking antidepressant use with the risk of bipolar manic episodes and later users. 25-26 cycle address a symptom only look at a possible mechanism and manipulating one via continue to create other symptoms. That is why, as professional naturopathic and functional medicine, we can help stop the cycle by finding all the factors involved and address the underlying cause.


LoBisco041lowres Sarah Lobisco, ND , is a graduate of the University of the University of Bridgeport naturopathic medicine (UBCNM). She is licensed in Vermont as a naturopath and has a degree in psychology from the State University of New York at Geneseo. Dr. LoBisco is a comprehensive health speaker, has several publications, and is a candidate for certification in functional medicine. Dr. LoBisco now incorporates her training as a naturopathic doctor and practitioner of functional medicine through writing, research, private practice, and through independent contract work for companies regarding supplements, nutraceuticals, essential oils and food medical. She has a small, private practice wellness consultation via phone and Skype. Dr. LoBisco also enjoys continuing to educate and train their readers through their blogs and social media.


References:

  1. Boukhris, T, O Sheehy, Mottron L, A. Berard use of antidepressants during pregnancy and the risk of autism spectrum disorder in children. JAMA Pediatrics . December 14, 2015. DOI: 10.1001 / jamapediatrics.2015.3356
  2. D. Thompson antidepressants during pregnancy may increase the risk of autism, according to a study. HealthDay. 14 December 2015. http://consumer.healthday.com/mental-health-information-25/antidepressants-news-723/antidepressants-in-pregnancy-may-rise-risk-of-autism-study-findsm-706132.html
  3. University of Montreal. Taking antidepressants during pregnancy increases the risk of autism by 87 percent. Medical Xpress. 14 December 2015. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-12-antidepressants-pregnancy-autism-percent.html
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Treatment for two. Data and statistics. August 15, 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/meds/treatingfortwo/data.html
  5. D. Daigle taking antidepressants during pregnancy can not raise the risk of autism. Health day. November 25, 2013.
  6. Gordon S. antidepressant use in pregnancy linked to autism risk in children: Study. CBS News. April 14, 2014. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/antidepressant-use-in-pregnancy-linked-to-autism-risk-in-boys/
  7. Tsankova NM, Berton O, Renthal W, Kumar A, Neve RL, Nestler EJ. chromatin regulation of hippocampal sustained in a mouse model of depression and antidepressant action. Nat Neurosci . 2006 Apr; 9 (4): 519-25. Epub 2006 Feb. 26
  8. A Menke, Klengel T, Binder EB. Epigenetic, depression and antidepressant treatment. Curr Pharm Des . 2012; 18 (36) :. 5879-89
  9. A Menke, EB binder. epigenetic alterations in depression and antidepressant treatment. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience . . 2014; 16 (3): 395-404
  10. Alasaari JS, Lagus M, Ollila HM, et al. Environmental stress affects DNA methylation of CpG rich promoter region of serotonin transporter gene in a cohort nurse. Chiariotti L, ed. PLoS ONE . 2012; 7 (9): e45813. doi:. 10.1371 / journal.pone.0045813
  11. Gómez-Pinilla food F. brain: the effects of nutrients on brain function. Comments Nature Neuroscience . 2008; 9 (7): 568-578. doi:. 10.1038 / nrn2421
  12. Gómez-Pinilla food F. brain: the effects of nutrients on brain function. Comments Nature Neuroscience . 2008; 9 (7): 568-578. doi:. 10.1038 / nrn2421
  13. Cass H. A practical guide to avoid drug-induced nutrient depletion. Nutrition Review File. April 22, 2013. http://nutritionreview.org/2013/04/practical-guide-avoiding-drug-induced-nutrient-depletion/
  14. M. Maes cytokine hypothesis of depression :. Inflammation, oxidative stress and nitrosative (IO and NS) and leaky gut as new targets for complementary treatments in depression Neuro Endocrinol Lett . 2008 Jun; 29 (3) :. 287-91
  15. Helen V. Ratajczak. Theoretical aspects of autism: Causes-A review. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 2011; 8 (1): 68-79. Informa Healthcare. Retrieved on August 13, 2011. http://www.rescuepost.com/files/theoretical-aspects-of-autism-causes-a-review1-1.pdf
  16. Rebecca J. Schmidt, et al. Prenatal vitamins, carbon metabolism genetic variants and risk for autism. Epidemiology. 2011; 22: 476-485. http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/newscience/prenatal-vitamins-lowers-autism-risk
  17. Paul M. why antidepressants do not work for so many: Research has found cause of depression oversimplified, drugs aimed at the wrong target. October 23, 2009. The website of Northwestern University. http://www.northwestern.edu/newscenter/stories/2009/10/redei.html. Accessed November 7, 2013.
  18. Fehér J, I Kovács, Balacco G, Gabrieli C. The role of gastrointestinal inflammation in the development and treatment of depression. ORV Hetil. 2011; 152 (37): 1477-1485. [Article in Hungarian]
  19. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of multiple species probiotic on cognitive reactivity to sad mood. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. August 2015. (40). 258-264
  20. Turning the intestinal microbiome in a chat room. Science News. March 2015. 179 https://www.sciencenews.org/article/turning-gut-microbiome-chat-room
  21. B. Goodman exposure to pesticides in tied to autism risk pregnancy. Health day. 23 June 2014. http://www.webmd.com/baby/news/20140623/study-links-pesticide-exposure-during-pregnancy-to-autism-risk-in-kids?page=2
  22. Gore, V. A. Chappell, S. E. Fenton, J. A. Defects, A. Nadal, G. S. Prins, J. Toppari, T. R. Zoeller. Executive Summary of the EDC-2: Statement Second Scientific Society of Endocrinology endocrine disrupting chemicals system . Endocrine Reviews. 2015; er.2015-1093 DOI. 10.1210 / er.2015-1093
  23. Barth C, Villringer A, Sacher J. sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and forms the female adult brain during periods of hormonal transition. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2015; 9: 37. doi: 10.3389 / fnins.2015.00037
  24. Rossignol DA, Frye RE. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry . 2012; 17 (3): 290-314. doi: 10.1038 / mp.2010.136
  25. Rashmi Patel et al.. Do antidepressants increase the risk of mania and bipolar disorder in people with depression? An electronic case record retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2015. DOI :. 10.1136 / bmjopen-2015-008341
  26. British Medical Journal. Certain antidepressants linked to increased risk of mania and bipolar disorder. Medical Xpress. December 15, 2015. http://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-12-antidepressants-linked-heightened-mania-bipolar.html
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This article was originally published on thenatpath, Read the original article here

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Posted in: Antidepressants, Autism, Depression, epigenetics, LoBisco, Natural News, pregnancy

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