miniature scaffolds could support the fight against superbugs ;
tiny molecular scaffold that binds to molecules together could be the key to our battle against antibiotic resistance . Research published in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters shows that the nanodot carbon scaffold mounted with small molecules called polyamines can kill some bacteria resistant to dangerous drugs, including Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
According to the World Health Organization, the antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest threats to public health we face today; there were about 480,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in 2013. The standard treatments are failing and there is an urgent need to develop more effective antibiotics.
Scientists working in this field have found that some large positively charged compounds, called polycationic dendrimers, are antimicrobial. Researchers in the new study, State University of Winston-Salem in the US and University Malaysia Sarawak in Malaysia, found that like the addition, but smaller polycationic molecules on a new type of material called nanodots carbon that makes them even better to kill bacteria resistant to drugs .
“We urgently need new and better antimicrobial materials if we want to deal with drug-resistant bacteria,” said Dr. Maria Ngu-Schwemlein, lead author of the study from the State University of Winston-Salem. “Our study shows that nanodots carbon can serve as a molecular scaffold for the construction of antimicrobial materials, is exciting because nanodots carbon are relatively easy and cheap to make, they are non-toxic and water soluble.”
carbon nanodots are tiny carbon particles that are useful in imaging, detection, drug delivery and other applications. They can easily be made from starch and non-toxic, which makes them suitable for use in medicine.
There coating the surface of carbon nanodots can help control the fluorescence properties of these small points chemical groups. This coating can also convert a molecular scaffold nanodots for immobilization of small molecules together to improve their potential.
Researchers use them to assemble molecules called PAMAM (poly (amidoamines)) together. PAMAM can vary in size, with the larger molecules showing some antimicrobial activity, which is not exhibited by children. The team wanted to make smaller molecules, more flexible and more efficient antimicrobial placing them in the nanodot carbon scaffolding, so he built two different molecules :. CND-PAM1 and CND-pam2
The team tested the two versions of the CND-PAM and found that both can kill Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at very low concentrations. The molecules have a higher antimicrobial activity against E. coli, so the researchers tested against similar bacteria, including drug-resistant strains: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In the case of K. pneumonia, molecules were four times more effective in killing than normal strain-drug resistant.
The researchers also analyzed whether the molecules with scaffolding helped existing antibiotics work better. Adding CND-PAM1 the antibiotic tetracycline was more effective against resistant K. pneumonia, and the addition of CND-PAM2 to colistin did it four times stronger against A. baumannii.
“We hope our research will lead to more effective antibiotics, and also to inspire other researchers to use carbon nanodots as a scaffold for a variety of applications,” said Dr. Ngu-Schwemlein .
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