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Endosteum is a fine soft connective tissue present in the open spaces within the long bones. This helps in various processes such as fracture healing and the production of new cells needed for bone fusion. Also, endostio has HSCs or hematopoietic stem cells, which play a vital role in the production of all types of blood cells.

medically known as medullary membrane or medullary cavity, the endosteal is in the cavity or diaphysis of long bones. This shaft or cavity has yellow and red bone marrow and coatings consist of cancellous bone or cancellous bone, which represents about 20% of the total weight of the skeleton.

Location and types endosteum

The endosteum is located in the inner section of the bones. It is the membrane layer covering the spongy area of ​​bone marrow cavity, the inner linings of long and compact bones, and Havers channels. It occurs in bones such as the femur, humerus, hip bones, ribs or chest bones and sesamoid bones as the kneecap. In the skull it is as coating the walls of the different chambers.

There are 3 types of endosteal, ie osteonal, cortical and trabecular; nomenclature refers to these types of internal bone area where it occurs.

  • Cortical endosteal is present on the inner walls of cortical bone and acts as the boundary of the bone cavity. The yellow bone marrow present in this hollow space helps cells store fat. During severe malnutrition, the body uses these cells as fuel for energy.
    • endosteum reabsorption during extreme malnutrition reduces bone density and thickness. This causes a decrease in cortical bone thickness which is very harmful because the cortical bone plays a vital role in many important functions, such as storage and release of calcium. Also, as the weight of cortical bone is about 80 percent of the total weight of the skeleton, the total weight of the patient was also significantly reduced.
    • The osteonal endosteum occurs in the inner walls of the channels Osteonal ‘, which are present in the compact bone and containing the nerves and blood supplies bone.
    • The endosteal trabecular line the inner walls of the trabeculae, which are bony rods that cover the spongy bone section next to the hole and thus help absorb and reduce impact damage bone. It has red marrow containing hematopoietic stem cells that help produce new blood cells.
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functions endostio

Some of the common features of the endosteum are listed below:

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  • bone repair: The osteogenic properties endosteum help play an important role in fractures of different types, bone repair and bone growth healing. The appearance of a hematoma within the bone causes increased production of endosteal cells which in turn work aimed at establishing a reparative callus, as well as to help the process of bone healing.
    • The process of collecting bone mechanical causes bone trabecular bone fracture and damage. Even in this scenario, the endostio helps the bone repair process by promoting the creation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts cells.
    • Other functions:. helps stimulate the production of hematopoietic cells
      • stimulates bone growth overall. The thin layer of connective tissue widthwise promotes bone growth.
      • it Stimulates osteones that occur in cortical bone and therefore allows bone apposition development.
      • By resorb bone, endosteum works with the periosteum to stimulate and promote the development of new bone. This means it has an important role to play in bone remodeling.
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vs. Endosteum Periosteum

While the endosteum is present inside the bone cavity, the periosteum is firm and lasting present outside the bone part. Cells that help produce bone reconstruction and therefore is also vital to the process of fracture healing.

Some of the differences between the periosteum and endosteal are:

  • Unlike the location of the endosteal as discussed above, the periosteum is located on the outer surface bone, joint areas with the exception. The latter also is not present in the kneecap and other sesamoid bones.
  • The periosteum is thicker than the endosteum; the thickness of the former is in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 mm, while the second is 0.01 mm thick.
  • The endosteum has freely chosen to connective tissue and is composed of endosteal cells in a single layer. periosteum structure is more complex and consists of 2 layers of cells in the periosteum. A layer has an enormous amount of periosteal cells, while 2 nd is the fibrous layer. Additionally, the connective tissue associated with the periosteum is arranged dense irregular shape.
  • The periosteum works with the endosteal and helps in all its varied functions bone repair, etc. Furthermore, also it passes in essential nutrients for the skeleton and plays a role in the sensitivity of the bones.
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