Cholesterol triggers Alzheimer through 3 copies of chromose # 21 ;
high levels of cholesterol in the blood increase the risk of heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease both, but it was unclear exactly how the brain damage cholesterol to promote disease and blood vessels of Alzheimer to promote atherosclerosis.
using the knowledge gained from the study of two much rarer disorders, Down syndrome and Niemann-Pick-C disease, researchers found that cholesterol wreaks havoc in the orderly process of cell division, leading to defective daughter cells throughout the body.
The study published in the online journal PLoS ONE, Antoneta Granic, PhD, and Huntington Potter, PhD, show that cholesterol, particularly in the form of LDL, “bad cholesterol” It causes cells in humans and mice to divide and distribute their duplicates incorrectly and-unequally to the next generation chromosomes. The result is an accumulation of defective daughter cells with the wrong number of chromosomes and therefore the wrong number of genes. Instead of the correct two copies of each chromosome, and therefore two copies of each gene, some cells acquire three copies and some only one.
study the effects of cholesterol in cell division Granic and Potter included a prominent finding of cells carrying three copies of chromosome (# 21 in humans and # 16 in mice) encoding the amyloid peptide which it is the key component of neurotoxic amyloid filaments that accumulate in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients.
Trisomy 21 human cells are significant because people with Down syndrome have trisomy 21 in all cells from the moment of conception, and they develop brain pathology and many developing dementia disease Alzheimer age 50. Granic previous studies, Potter and others have shown that up to 10 percent of the cells in an Alzheimer’s patient, including neurons in the brain, they have three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the usual two. Therefore, Alzheimer’s disease is, in a sense, a form of Down syndrome acquired. In addition, mutant genes inherited cause of Alzheimer’s disease cause the same defect in chromosome segregation as does cholesterol, indicating the presence of a problem common cell division in both familial disease as ‘sporadic’ (not familial) AD.
The research also found trisomy 21 neurons in the brains of children with what, until now, it was thought to be a neurodegenerative disease unrelated (Niemann Pick type C), caused by a mutation affecting the cholesterol physiology. This result suggests that neurodegeneration itself could be related chromosome missegregation.
This model is based on the finding Thomas Arendt, MD, and colleagues at the University of Leipzig that 90 percent of the observed at autopsy of Alzheimer’s patients neuronal cell death is due to creation and selective loss of neurons with the wrong number of chromosomes.
Identification of the specific problem caused by cholesterol will lead to completely new approaches to the treatment of many human diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, atherosclerosis, and possibly cancer, all of which show signs of division defective cell.
Granic and Potter have already found a potentially simple approach to prevent cholesterol from cells that cause for the distribution of their chromosomes unevenly in their new daughter cells. Specifically, when the culture cells were first treated with ethanol, subsequent exposure to bad cholesterol was without effect on cell division: each daughter cell receives the correct amount of chromosomes.
This article was originally published on alzheimersweekly, Read the original article here