Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by a protozoan parasite affects more than 8 million people in the US every year. 1.2
The infection is transmitted from partner to partner during sex. However, the incubation period of the infection is not entirely clear; It is believed that incubation times vary anywhere from 3-28 days after exposure to the parasite. 1.3
While trichomoniasis is highly curable, it can cause complications, especially in pregnant women. Women infected during pregnancy are at risk of premature birth, low birth weight and infection transmission during childbirth. 3
In addition to pregnant women, the general population of women appears to be at higher risk of HIV when they have an infection trichomoniasis. 3
Quick facts about trichomoniasis
Here are some key points about trichomoniasis. More details and supporting information is in the main article.
- Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection often referred to as “trich”
- Re-infection is common – about 1 in 5 people are infected again 3 months after completion of treatment
- To prevent reinfection, patients and their sexual partners need to complete treatment
- Vaginitis ( inflammation of the vagina) is commonly caused by trichomoniasis
- Only 30% of those infected with trichomoniasis symptoms develop
- Trichomoniasis usually affects the vagina, vulva and urethra
- Affected women with trichomoniasis during pregnancy are at increased risk of preterm delivery.
What is trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis can irritate the genitals and cause swelling in the groin area.
Trichomoniasis, also known as “Trich” is a sexually transmitted infection caused by a microscopic, single-cell protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis . The parasite is transmitted from person to person through sexual intercourse.
In women, the area of the body affected by trichomoniasis is most often the lower genital tract. In men, it is the urethra. The parasite does not usually infect other parts of the body such as the anus, mouth or hands. 2
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), trichomoniasis disease is the most common curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs). 2
Risk factors for trichomoniasis
Those who are at increased risk of becoming infected with trichomoniasis: 2.3
- Women with older women more likely than younger women who become infected
- People who have more than one sexual partner
- People with a history of trichomoniasis and other sexually transmitted infections
- People who have unprotected sex.
Symptoms of trichomoniasis
Up to 70% of people show no symptoms with trichomoniasis infection. In particular, men with trichomoniasis are often asymptomatic. 2.3
When symptoms are present, trichomoniasis can affect men and women differently. These symptoms vary in severity from minor cases of irritation in the most extreme cases of discharge is inflammation. 03.01
Symptoms of trichomoniasis for women include:
- frothy, foul smelling vaginal discharge (clear, white, gray, yellow or green)
- Blood in vaginal discharge
- genital irritation
- burning sensations in the genital region or during urination
- groin inflammation
- Painful intercourse (dyspareunia)
- Urinary frequency
- Painful urination (dysuria).
Symptoms of trichomoniasis for men include:
- urethral discharge from the penis or
- penis itching
- burning sensations after ejaculation or urination
- Urinary frequency
- Painful urination (dysuria).
Complications of trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis can lead to complications for pregnant women. The infection can be treated with medication secure way, however.
Trichomoniasis infection may increase the risk that an individual becomes infected with HIV, along with other sexually transmitted infections. This increased risk is attributed to inflammation caused by trichomoniasis. 2
trichomoniasis is linked to a number of complications for pregnant women: 02.04
- Preterm birth
- premature rupture of membranes
- low birth weight babies (less than 5.5 pounds)
- potential transmission of infection to the baby during birth.
Fortunately, trichomoniasis can be treated safely with antibiotics during pregnancy.
The diagnosis of trichomoniasis
In order to diagnose trichomoniasis infection, the doctor will have to take a sample of vaginal discharge or urine or penis. whether the sample is examined under a microscope or send it to a laboratory for further analysis. 03.01
There are a number of steps that women can take to make the process easier for health professionals diagnosis: 1
- not shower for at least 24 hours before an appointment like this lava download
- avoid using deodorant on the vulva – this mask odors and can cause irritation
- Do not have vaginal intercourse or insert any object (including buffers) into the vagina for 24-48 hours before the appointment
- If possible, schedule an appointment for when you are not on your period.
Previously, trichomoniasis is diagnosed by growing a culture of a sample. At present, the diagnosis is much faster, with health professionals able to use rapid tests, such as rapid antigen tests and nucleic acid amplification. 3
Treatment for trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is easy to treat men and women, including those who are pregnant. Usually, treatment consists of a single dose of metronidazole (Flagyl) or tinidazole (Tindamax), forms of antibiotic drugs that kill parasites. This medication comes in pill form and is taken orally. 2.3
It is important that you and your sexual partners are treated after a diagnosis of trichomoniasis. You should also avoid sex for a week after treatment. These measures help prevent reinfection. 03.01
You can prevent trichomoniasis infection by using condoms or practice abstinence. 03.01
If you think you have been exposed to trichomoniasis or think you have symptoms of an infection, talk to your health care provider for evaluation and treatment.