Patients Glioblastoma is a highly invasive, rapidly progressive cancer that has withstood various types of treatment. Given a very short half hope of survival, it is important to improve diagnostic capabilities before and at the time of surgery.
A better prognosis tool for brain cancer (glioblastoma) Patients
A new nano-made platform for observation of brain cancer cells provides a much more detailed view of how cells migrate and a more accurate prognosis after surgery for brain cancer (glioblastoma) patients.
A new nano-made platform allows cells of brain cancer to be observed individually, and isolates a particularly aggressive subset of cells. This small group of cells plays a key role in making such glioblastoma deadly form of cancer. “
By creating a similar environment to which glioblastoma cells naturally navigate, Yale and Hopkins researchers were able to accurately predict clinical outcomes of patients with brain cancer 14 enrolled in a recent study. The results are published in the journal Cell Reports .
Prof. Andre Levchenko, director of Systems Biology Institute and Yale University Professor John C. Malone of Biomedical Engineering, said the platform allows cells to be observed individually, and isolates a subset of particularly aggressive cells. This small group of cells plays a critical role in making such glioblastoma deadly form of cancer.
“Now we can analyze all these effects at the level of a single cell, which is important because there are several subpopulations of cells in the tumor,” Levchenko, a co-author of the study. “A tumor cell is a community – not just one type of cell.”
Conversely, genetic analyzes are in many different cells at a time, and crucial details are lost. As a result, these tests provide little information to predict patient outcomes.
To create the right environment, the researchers designed a polymer nanostructure that mimics certain aspects of the architecture of the brain tissue. Unlike a flat and hard Petri dish, this environment provides cells with a fibrous structure.
In this environment – a sort of semicircular structures between two dimensions and three dimensions – the behavior of cells reflects the cell in the actual brain tissue, particularly in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a molecule that is naturally found in brain tumors.
“Surprisingly, we could predict how many months would pass before a specific tumor would be repeated by observing how the cells are removed surgically moved later,” Levchenko said.
Levchenko said introduction of PDGF was key to see the differences among patients. The cells reacted very strongly to PDGF in cells of some patients, while there was little effect with other patients. The response to this signal was particularly strong in the subset of aggressive cells. “That’s where the important differences between patients turned out to be,” Levchenko said.
For comparison, the researchers also observed cells placed in a petri dish. In that environment, glioblastoma cells were much more passive and does not respond to changes in chemical signals, including PDGF. This highlights the importance of placing the patient’s cells in a suitable environment for diagnostic and prognostic tests.
In addition to developing a more accurate prognosis, the researchers believe the technology could lead to new therapies and better match existing for specific patients, an objective of the Institute for Systems Biology at Yale.
The initial analysis of the 14 patients was conducted at Johns Hopkins, and the platform is being integrated into the clinical setting at Yale University, Johns Hopkins University and the Mayo Clinic.
This article was originally published on medindia.net
Posted in: health news