Pneumonia is the leading killer of children worldwide under the age of five years, the Organization suggests World Health Organization. Meningitis, sepsis and other serious infections may also be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae , a bacterium more commonly known as pneumococcus.
Newly developed pneumococcal bacteria vaccine Watches, strikes only when necessary
To treat and prevent diseases caused by pneumococcus, doctors almost exclusively relied on penicillin and other common antibiotics. While still used, the efficacy of these drugs has been fading for decades because bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics.
‘A new vaccine allows causing pneumonia to colonize the body inside the bacteria, into action only if the bacteria are a threat. “
The situation prompted pharmaceutical companies to develop preventive vaccines, which have reduced deaths and diseases, especially in developed countries. But I pneumococcus remains a serious problem.
Pneumonia killed 1.3 million people worldwide in 2011, with most deaths in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In the United States, pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis caused tens of thousands of deaths each year, said the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases.
One reason for this is that current vaccines target only a small percentage – known to cause more serious infections – of the more than 90 strains of pneumococcus. These vaccines, which identify pneumococci by a sugar coating surrounding the bacteria, are 56-88% effective.
A new vaccine allows causing pneumonia to colonize the body inside the bacteria, into action only if the bacteria are a threat.
The breakthrough approach together with potential vaccine based protein counteract more than 90 strains of the bacterium, has the ingredients to override how vaccines worked (killing bacteria before colonization) from the time of Louis Pasteur. It also offers what may be the most direct and comprehensive response to pneumonia.
“This is a very serious disease that we have not been able to suppress completely. The vaccine we are developing could finally get the job done,” says Blaine A. Pfeifer, associate professor of chemical and biological engineering at the University of Buffalo professor Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
The work is described in a study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , directed by Pfeifer and UB student of Charles H. Jones, who is leading efforts to market the vaccine at startup based on Buffalo Abcombi Biosciences.
“With conventional vaccines, the focus has been:” What bacteria we target and how, ‘ “says Jones, CEO and founder of Abcombi, and a former student Pfeifer.” Our strategy is to change the paradigm of diseases we do to prevent. “
The team led by Abcombi UB and took a different approach. Its vaccine strains identified proteins bound to the surface of pneumococci. Laboratory tests show that the vaccine can defend against over 12 strains and is 100% effective in promoting proper immune response.
Computer simulations indicate that the vaccine would be effective against all strains, but additional tests are needed to confirm that.
“It’s like the arcade game Whac-A-Mole. Think of the club as a traditional vaccine. You can not stop all the moles, or in our case, all strains of bacteria at the same time,” says Jones. “But our vaccine does just that. It’s like a deck with 90 heads that affects all the moles at the same time.”
The ability to fight numerous strains is important, Jones says, because the development of new versions of existing vaccines is costly and time consuming. The new vaccine also differs from what is in the market for its response to the bacteria.
Current vaccines teach the immune system to indiscriminately destroy bacteria and other pathogens system, preventing colonization. The approach works, but there is growing concern that can create a space within the body for new and potentially more harmful alternatives to establish residence – similar to antibiotic resistance emergence of new and more powerful pathogens.
The new vaccine allows bacteria exist as long as it causes no harm to the body. It tells the immune system to attack only when the surface proteins, mentioned above, are released from the bacterial layer.
“That’s the sign that this bacteria is becoming a troublemaker, his body threatening and need to fight,” says Pfeifer. Having demonstrated the effectiveness of the vaccine in animals, Abcombi is now leading efforts to carry out human trials
Source :. Newswise
This article was originally published on medindia.net
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