antibiotic resistance in children is high and is associated with previous antibiotic use

Mar 15, 2016 | | Say something

antibiotic resistance in children is high and is associated with previous antibiotic use ;

Antibiotic resistance in children with urinary tract infections is high and could cause some antibiotics ineffective as first-line treatments, says a study published by The BMJ today.

Antimicrobial resistance is a threat to health recognized internationally. Worldwide, children they are frequent consumers of antibiotics-and such routine use has been shown to increase the likelihood of resistance to antibiotics in adults urinary tract infections .

However, little is known about the prevalence of bacterial resistance in children or risk factors important in this group.

Thus, a team of researchers from the UK’s University of Bristol and Imperial College London proposed to review studies investigating the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli , a bacterium responsible for over 80% of all urinary tract infections in children. The team also set out to measure the association between prior exposure to antibiotics and subsequent resistance in the same child.

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results of 58 observational studies were reviewed in 26 countries involving more than 77,000 E. coli samples. Although observational studies can not tell us about the cause and effect meta-analysis of observational data is useful for pulling together evidence.

The results show a high overall prevalence of resistance to some of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in primary care, urinary tract infections in children because of E coli .

The results were classified by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) health status of the country of study as antibiotics tend to be used differently in these groups.

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Within the OECD countries, half of all samples were resistant to ampicillin (amoxicillin), a third to cotrimoxazole, and a quarter of trimethoprim. The resistance was substantially higher in countries outside the OECD.

Lead author Ashley Bryce, a doctoral student at the Center for Academic Primary Care at the University of Bristol says that “The prevalence of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in primary care in children with urinary tract infections caused by E coli is high, especially in countries outside the OECD, where a possible explanation is the availability of antibiotics without a prescription. “

Dr. Ceire Costelloe, who co-led the research at the Research Unit Health Protection in Healthcare associated infections and antimicrobial resistance at Imperial College London, said that “the results also suggest previous use of antibiotics increased subsequent risk of E coli resistance to particular antibiotics for up to six months after treatment. “

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In an accompanying editorial, Professor Grant Russell of the University of Monash in Australia describes how this test is part of a series of recent studies, reports, and calls to action on this issue by presenting “convincing evidence the need to reconsider current approaches to community-based treatment of pediatric urinary tract infection “.

However, he concludes: “While I have no doubt that clinical practice guidelines quickly be able to accommodate the results, I am less sure that there is the will and commitment to address what the WHO has called “post antibiotic era”

This article was originally published on medicalxpress, Read the original article

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