Contraceptive methods: types, efficacy and side effects

May 12, 2018 | | Say something

With so many options when it comes to birth control , how do you decide which method is best?

The decision to use birth control and the method of choice is personal. With the guidance of your health care provider in which the best suits your needs method can safely and effectively prevent pregnancy.

While most methods birth control are very effective when used correctly, there is always a possibility that the method will fail. Weighing the options yourself and your partner and provider of health care is an important part of the decision-making process.

Some things they consider when choosing a birth control method are: 1

  • His health
  • His desire to have children in the future
  • frequency of sexual intercourse and number of sexual partners
  • The safety and efficacy of the method chosen
  • personal comfort level with the chosen method.

also see introductions at the end of some sections to the latest changes that have been covered by MNT ‘s news. Also look out for links to information related conditions.

Quick facts about birth control

Here are some key points on the control birth . More details and supporting information is in the main article. 4

  • There are 61 million American women of childbearing age (15-44).
  • About 43 million of them (70%) they are at risk of unwanted pregnancy.
  • Couples who do not use any contraceptive method have a probability of about 85% experience a pregnancy during the course of a year.
  • The typical American woman wants only two children. To achieve this goal, it uses contraceptives for about three decades.
  • Over 99% of women aged 15-44 who have ever had sex have used at least one contraceptive method.
  • Approximately 62% of women of reproductive age currently using a contraceptive method.
  • 10% of women at risk of unwanted pregnancy are not currently using any contraceptive method.
  • The proportion of women at risk who are not using contraception is highest among 15-19 year olds (18%) and lowest among women aged 40-44 (9%).
  • 67% of women who practice contraception methods currently used nonpermanent mainly hormonal methods (pill, patch, implants, injectables and vaginal ring), intrauterine devices and condoms. The rest are based on women (25%) or male (8%) sterilization.
  • The pill and female sterilization have been the two most commonly used methods since 1982.
  • Some 762,000 women using the pill (9% of pill users) have never had sex and the method used almost exclusively by non-contraceptive reasons.

What are my options for birth control?

There are several methods of birth control that meet the unique needs of each person and include:

woman thinking about birth control options
There are several issues to consider when deciding which contraceptive method is right for you. Your doctor can help you find the right method for you.


Abstinence is a contraceptive method that can be defined in different ways and does not include sex at all, just no vaginal penetration. 2 However you describe or perceive withdrawal, it is important to determine if and how this method will work for you.

Not having any sexual intercourse including oral sex vaginal, anal or reference to abstinence as is done continuously and is the only way to avoid 100% pregnancy and STDs. 1.2

Abstinence is both safe and effective and has many benefits, including, without side effects and is free. However, there are times when abstinence is difficult to maintain. 2

Natural family planning

Also it is known as the “rhythm method” or “based on fertility awareness methods” allow couples use abstinence or other forms of birth control, such as withdrawal or barrier methods to prevent pregnancy during certain fertile periods of the menstrual cycle of a woman. 03.01

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Women who menstruate normally fertile experience about 7-9 days per month -. That is, if you have unprotected vaginal sex, can conceive / get pregnant 03.01

On average, the most fertile days of the menstrual cycle of women include the 5 days before ovulation (release of an egg), and day 2-3 days after ovulation. 1.2

There are several ways to track their fertile days, including the timing, temperature or cervical mucus method; when used in combination it is known as the “symptothermal Method.” The “SDM” can also be used in this type of contraception. 2

When used correctly, this method of birth control provide effective prevention of pregnancy and has no side effects. 1.2

The benefits of natural family planning are numerous and include safety, effectiveness, low cost and easily interrupted. In addition, there is no need for medication. As with any contraceptive method there are disadvantages in that the method does not work in all situations of life, such as more than one sexual partner, the inability to abstain, or side effects of certain medications. In addition, the difficulty in accurately track days, breastfeeding and age (point menopause ) can make this method more difficult. 2

The number of unwanted pregnancies with this method are approximately 24 to 25%. 03.01


In order to be used as an effective method of contraception should exclusively breastfeed your baby to hormones your body does not produce eggs ovulate. 2

The benefits of this method of birth control are numerous with some including safety, efficacy, convenience and low cost (free) and reducing post-partum hemorrhage.

Some of the disadvantages include the need for exclusive breastfeeding and reduced vaginal lubrication. 2

As with all methods of birth control, it is imperative to be properly implemented to prevent pregnancy. When used correctly, less than 1% of women experience an unwanted pregnancy.


The definition of “no penetration” is variable and can be described in one of two ways.

A definition is without vaginal intercourse, but the practice of other forms of sexual activity; The other definition is not oral, anal or vaginal. 2

Examples of non-penetrative sex include kissing, masturbation, manual stimulation, body to body rubbing, fantasy, sex toys, oral and anal. 1

This method of birth control is nearly 100% effective, however, this may be reduced in cases in which the semen or pre-ejaculate contact vulva leading to the possible introduction of spermatozoa in the vagina. 2

There are several advantages to using birth control without penetration and include safety, lack of side effects, decreased risk of fluid exchange and the relationship and improves the sexual experience. The disadvantages include difficulty abstinence and the possibility of contact with the vaginal sperm.

Hormonal contraception

Hormonal contraception can be administered in a variety of methods, including pills, patches and injections vaginal rings. Each of these methods provides an effective method of birth control when used properly; deciding which method is best for you should discuss with your provider health care.

pink packet of birth control pills
Some contraceptives work by using hormones that are similar to hormones that women produce naturally. These hormones are estrogen and progestogen.

Serious risks associated with hormonal contraceptives include heart attack Career , blood clots (higher in patch users), high blood pressure , tumors liver bile calculations jaundice (yellowing of the skin). 1.2

These risks are higher in some women, including women who are 35 years or older, overweight, have a history of certain disorders of inherited bleeding, high, high cholesterol blood pressure, prolonged bed rest and those who are smokers. 2

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Birth control pills contain either a combination of hormones estrogen and progestin or progestin only to prevent pregnancy. 2

Birth control pills are a very effective method of preventing pregnancy, however, as with all other methods, which must be used properly.

With proper use, only 1% of women experience an unwanted pregnancy. However, this increases significantly the failure of 9% in women when taken incorrectly or inconsistently. 2.3

The effectiveness of the pill decreases in women who are overweight, those of certain antibiotics , antifungals, some medications used to treat HIV drugs and anticonvulsants, must and San Juan gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and vomiting. 1.2

Experienced common side effects with the use of pills that can be considered as a disadvantage for the use of the pill include breakthrough bleeding, breast tenderness, nausea / vomiting, dizziness, gastrointestinal disorders, weight gain, mood swings and problems visual.

Benefits of taking the pill include menstrual cramps, lighter periods and some pelvic inflammatory disease protection (EPI), reduced bone thinning, improved acne protection certain cancers [19459008mejoraron], ectopic pregnancy and breast benign growths. In addition, the pill can help reduce iron deficiency anemia symptoms of premenstrual syndrome and. 2


hormonal patches offer certain hormones through the skin to provide an effective method of birth control.

if used correctly, the patch is very effective with less than 1% of women who have an unwanted pregnancy, however, the misuse of this failure increases of 9%. 2.3

The effectiveness of the patch decreases in women who are overweight (over 198 lbs), those of certain antibiotics, antifungals, some medicines used to treat HIV, some anti-seizure medications and St. John’s wort. 2.3

Common side effects experienced with the patch that can be seen as a disadvantage to patch use include breakthrough bleeding, breast tenderness and nausea / vomiting. 2


Given every 3 months, Depo-Provera is an injectable form of contraception using the hormone progestin to prevent pregnancy. 03.01

When used correctly, this is a very effective method of birth control less than 1% of women with unplanned pregnancy; this rises to 6% failure when taken inconsistently. 03.01

Benefits injectable birth control include safety and comfort, uterine cancer prevention, safety breastfeeding and lack of estrogen. 2

Side effects can include irregular bleeding, heavy menstruation, changes in libido, weight gain, depression , abnormal hair growth, headaches , nausea and breast tenderness . 1.2 Additionally, there is generally a delay in the return of normal fertility after discontinuation of the injection.

The risks associated with Depo-Provera include thinning of the bones with an increased risk of fracture and osteoporosis and ectopic pregnancy. 1.2

Vaginal rings

NuvaRing is a flexible plastic ring that is inserted and left in the vagina for three weeks of each menstrual cycle of 4 weeks. 03.01 The estrogen and progestin are released into the vagina, providing effective contraception. 2

When used correctly, this is a very effective method of birth control, with less than 1% of women with unplanned pregnancy; this increases to 9% failure when used incorrectly. 2

Benefits of use include safety and comfort, as well as the rapid restoration of fertility, lighter periods, some protection pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), reduced thinning of the bones, improves acne, protection against certain types of cancer, ectopic pregnancy and breast benign growths. Moreover, the NuvaRing can help reduce iron deficiency anemia and symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. 2

In addition to breakthrough, breast pain, and gastrointestinal disorders, bleeding vaginal ring can cause vaginal discharge, irritation and infection. 1.2

Recent developments in hormonal contraception MNT news

contraceptive pill protects against endometrial cancer for decades

A new study published in The Lancet Oncology states that the pill provides long term protection against endometrial cancer protection. Researchers say that over the last decade, the pill has prevented 200,000 cases of the disease in developed countries.

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10 Control Pill birth Most common side effects

The oral contraceptive pill, commonly known as “the pill” is a form of hormonal contraception taken by about 12 million women in the United States every year to prevent pregnancy. What are the most common side effects?

The implanted devices


The intrauterine device (IUD) is a T-shaped device inserted into the uterus by a qualified physician. Currently, there are three IUDs available in the United States and include the Mirena IUD and hormonal and Skyla nonhormonal copper IUD Paragard.

birth control IUD
An IUD is a small plastic and copper device in the form of T that is inserted into the uterus (womb) by a qualified professional health.

Less than 1% of women with unplanned pregnancy, the IUD, which is left in the uterus for several years, is an effective method of contraception. 03.01

The Mirena can be left in place for 5 years, 3 and Paragard Skyla for 10-12 years. 1.2 While generally safe, the IUD can not be used by all women, and you should talk to your healthcare provider to see if it is safe for you personally. Some women may not be able to use either IUD depends on personal medical history.

As with any drug or device, there are risks and side effects. Depending on the IUD used, it may fall, causing uterine cramps, heavy menstruation, intermenstrual bleeding, an infection called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility and uterine perforation. 1.2

In addition, women who become pregnant have a higher ectopic pregnancy, pelvic infection, miscarriage, premature birth risk.

The benefits of having an IUD include preventing pregnancy long term, they are safe when used during lactation, fertility can be easily restored after extraction, hormonal IUDs can help with menstrual cramps and bleeding, and if no hormonal birth control is desired, Paragard does not have an effect on your hormone levels.

implantable rod

Another way of implanted birth control is the small implantable rod, or Implanon Implanon.

Placed under the skin in the upper arm, this form of control provides implantable hormonal birth preventing pregnancy for 3 years. 03.01

This is a safe and highly effective form of birth control less than 1% of women who experience an unwanted pregnancy during use. 03.01 Some women may not be able to use the implantable rod, so talk with your provider of health care is essential.

The advantages of this method of birth control are numerous and include the restoration of easy fertility after removal, safe to use during breastfeeding, does not contain estrogen, long lasting and requires daily medication. 2

As with any contraceptive method, there are drawbacks, including side effects such as irregular bleeding, menstrual changes, sometimes with intermenstrual spots or long, heavy menstrual periods, acne, weight gain, ovarian cysts , changes in mood / depression hair loss headaches upset stomach / nausea, dizziness, chest pain and decreased libido (sexual desire) and pain at the insertion site, skin scarring or infection. 1.2 In addition, certain drugs may decrease the effectiveness of the rod and should be discussed with your provider health care.

Recent developments in implanted devices MNT news

Method intrauterine device (IUD) birth control

An IUD is a small plastic device and birth control copper T-shaped inserted into the uterus by a professional health care. IUDs are safe, effective and long lasting.

On the next page look more birth control methods, their effectiveness and side effects.

This article was originally published on MNT, Read the original article here

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Posted in: Women's Health, Women's Health / Gynecology

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